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Treatment of ethylene spent caustic pollutant using sulfuric acid PDFALI FARZI, SAEID MOSLEMI BAYRAMICaustic soda is used in naphtha cracking units and petroleum refineries for sweetening of hydrocarbon streams. The generated caustic waste is an environmental pollutant and must be removed. Several methods are proposed for treatment of spent caustic such as wet air oxidation, biological treatment, etc. Spent caustic used in this work is prepared from Tabriz Petrochemical Company. In this work sulfuric acid was used for treatment of spent caustic which not only removes the waste, but also generates valuable product of sodium sulfate. In each experiment, 1L of spent caustic was taken and its color and phenol were removed by oxidization with H2O2. Then, 50 mL sulfuric acid was added and treatment process was performed. Different samples were taken at specified time periods to calculate percent waste conversion. The results showed that after 2.5 minutes it was about 79%, 84% and 92% at 25, 35 and 45C, respectively.
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STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR ENTERPRENUERSHIP STUDIES IN INDUSTRIAL DESIGN PROGRAMMES PDFWuritka, Enoch GotringAlthough Industrial Design Programmes constitute some of the curricular arrangements in Nigerian Institutions of higher learning for the purpose of establishing a strong foundation for entrepreneurship studies, there are strong indications of summountable problems. According to Blake (2011) there are problems of traditionalism and conservative beliefs which have largely failed to exploit the roles of effective communication in emphasizing the importance of the curricular underpinnings. Industrial Design Programmes being interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary studies with commitments linked to entrepreneurship must embrace the sense of innovations. These factors according to Onwuka (2010) are meant to explore and capitalize on the development and advantages of appropriate resources for the purpose of rationalizing instructions on entrepreneurship education in Industrial Design. While this paper highlights the role of appropriate instructional resources in relevance to entrepreneurship studies in Industrial Design, institutional policies and realities on ground have also been reviewed.
Load Sharing of Piled-Raft Foundations embedded in soft to medium Clay Subjected to Vertical Loads PDFDr. Ahmed Mustafa Ragheb, Dr. Tarek Mostafa Abdelaziz, E. Nader Aly AyadMany researches have been performed on pile raft foundation in order to investigate the combined nature of raft and piles that behave as a unit. The load sharing ratio of piled raft has been studied by many researchers and mathematical formulas are achieved to predict the load sharing ratio. In the present study, the closed form equation proposed by Kyujin Choi (2014 which based on tests applied from centrifuge tests on pile raft system) is applied on the case of friction piles embedded in soft/medium clay. The load sharing ratio was calculated in case of different studied parameters and the relationships between the piled raft settlement and load sharing ratio were achieved and plotted. The studied parameters included were cohesion, number of piles, piles length, piles spacing and piles diameter. The study results concluded that the load sharing ration for all studied cases is ranging from 0.73 to 0.96. In addition the load sharing ratio is directly proportional to number of piles, piles length, piles spacing and piles diameter and inversely proportional to piles spacing. Also it can be concluded that the cohesion of soil surrounding the piles has a little effect on the value of load sharing ratio.
F&DT Analysis of an Aircraft Wing PDFTejaswini Borra, Ganesh Kumar PamarthiThis paper focuses on estimation of fatigue life of a fastener and crack growth analysis of an aircraft wing of GARUDA - 101. There is no much literature and tools to avoid fatigue damage and failures. Life of the joints, components, and whole aircraft should be estimated to reduce the structural failures due to fatigue. Life after crack initiation should also be estimated. 076b4e4f54