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Ruben Korolev
Ruben Korolev

Buy Taxus Chinensis

This plant is used to produce medicines for cancer treatment,[2][3] including Paclitaxel[4] and Taxifolin (found in Taxus chinensis var. mairei).[5] It can also be used in many other ways and is protected in various ways under Chinese and international law.[3][6]

buy taxus chinensis

Endophytc fungi were collected from the barks, branches and leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei from the Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Chongqing regions of China and their influences on geographic and tissue investigated. A total of 145 fungal taxa were identified based on molecular techniques, of these 125 taxa (86.2 %) belonging to Ascomycota, 14 (9.7 %) to Basidiomycota, 5 (3.4 %) to Zygomycota, and 1 (0.7 %) to undefined fungi. The species richness and diversity of endophytic fungi were significantly affected by tissue, and were 1.2-2.5-fold higher in the branches and barks when compared to the leaves. The locality affected the species richness per tree and the shannon diversity index per tree by longitude. The endophyte assemblages were strongly shaped by locality and tissue according to partial least squares discriminant analysis. In addition, the distributions of dominant fungi at orders and genera levels differed as a function of locality and tissue. Most of the dominant taxa showed spatial heterogeneity and tissue specificity or preference and many fungal taxa with low frequency were special to one locality or one tissue.

Taxus species have attracted much attention for their potency in cancer treatment. However, investigating the bioactivities of Taxus species is a complex task, due to their diversity, slow growth, and endangered state. The most important Taxus species in China are Taxus chinensis (T. chinensis), Taxus cuspidata (T. cuspidata), and Taxus media (T. media), which mainly grow in the northeastern region. This article probes deep into the differences among the leaves of T. chinensis, T. cuspidata, and T. media, with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Through GC-MS, 162 compounds were detected in the samples and found to contain 35 bioactive metabolites. On this basis, 20 metabolites with significant bioactivities (antibiotic, antioxidant, anticancer, and antiaging effects) were identified via unsupervised learning of principal component analysis and supervised learning of partial least squares-discriminant analysis. The results show that T. media has the most prominent antibiotic, antioxidant, and anticancer effects, while T. cuspidata has the most diverse and abundant metabolites that slow down aging.

Ethnobotany. The wood of Taxus chinensis is used in China for construction, cooperage, furniture, and for wood carving and turning. In Vietnam it is also used for irrigation paddles in rice fields. Extracts of many parts of the plant (roots, wood, bark and leaves) are used in traditional medicine, while in modern times it has been used as a source of anti-cancer drugs such as Taxol, derived from the bark and leaves. The seeds contain oils that are also extracted, but treatment is necessary to neutralize the poisonous alkaloids. In horticulture it has been used in bonsai and to a limited extent as a garden shrub. It is doubtful whether this species is in cultivation outside China and Vietnam, though it can be found in a few botanical gardens.

This study evaluates the use of a novel mechanical stimulus, ultrasound (US), and a putative chemical elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MJ), combined with in situ solvent extraction (two-phase culture), to enhance taxol production by Taxus chinensis cells in suspension culture. The volumetric taxol yield was increased 1.5- to 1.8-fold with 2 min US treatment once or twice during a 4-week culture period, about 5-fold with 60-120 microM MJ, and 7- to 9-fold by in situ solvent extraction of taxol with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) (11% v/v). The percent of extracellular taxol or taxol release was also significantly increased. The combined use of US (day 5 or 9) and MJ treatment (day 7) resulted in taxol yields 20-50% higher than each of the treatments used alone. The most favorable strategy for taxol production was the application of US or MJ treatment, followed by in situ solvent extraction, giving rise to a taxol yield of 33-35 mg/l, about 17-fold higher than the control, at 1.9 mg/l. It was found that the organic solvent DBP, as well as US and MJ, stimulated the enzyme activity of secondary metabolic pathways, which was partially responsible for the enhanced taxol production.

Taxus chinensis is a well-known gymnosperm with great ornamental and medicinal value. Its purple red brown heartwood (HW) has many attributes such as straight texture, high density, mechanical strength, rich elasticity and corrosion resistance that is highly prized commercially. T. chinensis sapwood (SW), in comparison, lacks these important traits. At present, little is known about the differences of metabolites between the SW and HW in T. chinensis. Widely targeted metabolic profiling was performed to analyze the metabolic profiles of HW and SW in T. chinensis using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (LC-EI-MS). A total of 607 metabolites were detected in HW and SW. Among them, 146 metabolites were significantly higher, and 167 metabolites significantly lower, in HW as compared to SW. These differential metabolites were mainly involved in metabolic pathways and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, flavone and flavonol, phenylpropanoids and antibiotics. Moreover, 71 flavonoids and isoflavones were found to be significantly different between HW and SW. Our results show the difference of components between the HW and SW, which has potential significance to further elucidate the mechanism of HW color formation. The results will provide insight into the metabolites associated with wood color formation and useful information for understanding the metabolites associated with wood quality.

Taxus chinensis, belongs to the Taxus family, also known as yew, and is a well-known gymnosperm with great ornamental and medicinal value12. The bark of T. chinensis can produce paclitaxel, which has been widely used in the treatment of lung, ovarian and breast cancer13,14,15. In addition, the wood of Taxus has high commercial value because of its good aesthetic appearance, straight texture, high density, mechanical strength, rich elasticity, corrosion resistance, white yellowish SW and purple red brown colored HW. However, little is known about the metabolites variation between the SW and HW in T. chinensis.

Metabolomics is a valuable approach for the high-throughput and comprehensive study of complex metabolic compositions, and has been widely applied in plants16,17,18,19,20. Mass spectrometry methods have been used for detection and quantification of metabolites16,17,18. With the aim to investigate the metabolites variation between the SW and HW in T. chinensis, widely targeted metabolomics approach using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed. The metabolites in SW and HW were identified, the differences in metabolite profile in SW and HW compared. Our results are potentially useful for the further elucidation of the mechanism of HW color formation. The results will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of wood formation and useful information for improved wood quality.

SW and HW were collected from the branch from an approximately 30-year-old of T. chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. The outer wood tissue with a pale yellow color is defined as SW and the central tissue with a red or dark-brown color is characterized as HW (Fig. 1). In order to investigate the components of HW and SW in T. chinensis, widely targeted metabolic profiling was performed to analyze the metabolic profiles of HW and SW in T. chinensis by using the Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry. Metabolomics data of HW and SW were processed using System Software Analyst (Version 1.6.3). Metabolites were quantitatively analyzed following collection of secondary data using the MRM model, as a result, a total of 607 metabolites were identified in HW and SW, including 52 lipids, 98 organic acids and their derivatives, 43 nucleotides and their derivatives, 132 flavonoids, 55 amino acids and their derivatives, 36 alkaloids, 93 phenylpropanoids, 12 vitamins, 17 terpenes, 21 carbohydrates and 48 others (supplementary file 1). These metabolites are involved in the most of primary and secondary metabolisms. Among these metabolites, the most abundant metabolites are the flavonoids, suggesting the flavonoids play a role in the process of the wood color formation.

To obtain the pathway information of differential metabolites, the differential metabolites between the HW and SW were mapped to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database ( ). The results are shown in Fig. 4, these differential metabolites are mainly involved in metabolic pathways and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, flavone and flavonol, phenylpropanoids and antibiotics etc. Flavonoids, flavone and flavonol were included in phenylpropanoids, which are a large class of plant secondary metabolites derived from phenylalanine in plants. In addition to flavonoids, it also includes monolignols, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and coumarins21,22,23. As we know, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are the major components of wood, but they do not exhibit color. It has been shown that the wood color is due to the existence of colored extractives contained in the wood. These colored extractives turn into dark color from a pale color by oxidation, polymerization and polymerization with wood main components over time24. Previous studies have shown that the extractives of some important colored woods were the flavonoids25,26, suggesting that the flavonoid metabolites identified in this study may explain the difference in wood color between the HW and SW in T. chinensis. 041b061a72

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